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Title: Acute kidney damage in pregnancy: Etiopathogenesis, diagnostics and basic principles of treatment
Authors: Drasković, Branislava
Nikolić, Tomislav
Jaćović, Saša
Petrovic, Dejan
Issue Date: 2020
Abstract: © 2020, University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Science. All rights reserved. Acute kidney damage associated with pregnancy occurs in 1/20.000 pregnancies. In developing countries, the main cause of the development of acute kidney damage is septic abortion, and preeclampsia in the developed countries of the world. Preeclamp-sia is defined as newly developed hypertension, proteinuria and swelling in pregnant women after the 20th week of gestation. It occurs due to disorders in the development of placenta and sys-temic disorders of the function of the endothelium of the mother. It is treated with methyldopa, magnesium sulfate and timely deliv-ery. Urgent delivery is indicated if the age of gestation is ≥ 34 weeks. HELLP syndrome is a difficult form of preeclampsia. Its main characteristics are decreased platelet count, microangio-pathic hemolysis anemia, increased concentration of aminotrans-ferase in the serum and acute kidney damage. Severe HELLP syndrome is treated with emergency delivery, antihypertensives, magnesium sulfate, and in some cases plasmapheresis and hemo-dialysis. Acute fatty liver in pregnancy occurs because of decreased activity of the LCHAD enzyme of the fetus. Due to the reduced beta oxidation of fatty acids in the hepatocytes of the fetus, long chain fatty acids that cause damage to the mother's hepato-cytes are released. Swansea criteria are used for diagnosis, and the difficult form of the disease is treated with plasmapheresis and extracorporeal liver support. Atypical HUS is due to a reduced protein activity that regulates the activity of the alternative pathway of the complement system. Its main features are thrombocy-topenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and acute kidney damage. It is treated with plasmapheresis, and in case of resistance with eculizumab. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is due to decreased activity of the ADAMTS13 enzyme. It is char-acterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic ane-mia, high temperature, nervous system disorders and acute kidney damage. It is treated with plasmapheresis, and severe form of disease with corticosteroids and azathioprine. Early detection and timely treatment of acute kidney damage provides a good outcome for the mother and fetus.
Type: article
DOI: 10.1515/SJECR-2017-0058
ISSN: 1820-8665
SCOPUS: 2-s2.0-85091370977
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kragujevac

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