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|Title:||The Influence of Menopause and Inflammation on Redox Status and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis|
|Journal:||Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity|
|Abstract:||© 2021 Aleksandra Stojanovic et al. Although oxidative stress is considered to be one of the key pathogenic factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is insufficient knowledge regarding the impact of menopause on redox status in this population. Thus, this study is aimed at assessing the influence of menopause within healthy women and within RA patients as well as the impact of RA in premenopausal and postmenopausal women on redox status, with special reference to bone mineral density (BMD). A total of 90 women were included in the study, 42 with RA and 48 age-matched healthy controls. They were divided into subgroups according to the presence of menopause. Following oxidative stress parameters were measured spectrophotometrically: index of lipid peroxidation (measured as TBARS), nitrites (NO2-), superoxide anion radical (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH). BMD was assessed by using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner. Comorbidities and drug history were recorded. The levels of H2O2 and TBARS were elevated in patients with RA, while NO2- and O2- increased in healthy women, both in premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. SOD activity decreased in postmenopausal RA patients. BMD was reduced in postmenopausal RA women. There was a correlation between NO2- and O2- with Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) index in RA patients. Given that postmenopausal state was associated with elevated oxidative stress within healthy women and that menopausal state did not affect redox homeostasis within RA patients, but the redox homeostasis was altered in both RA groups compared to healthy women, it can be presumed that impaired redox status in RA occurred due to presence of the disease, irrespective of age. Moreover, menopause attenuates BMD reduction in women with RA. These results may indicate the need for therapeutic use of antioxidants in the form of supplements in women with RA, regardless of age.|
|Appears in Collections:||Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kragujevac|
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