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Title: Microbeam radiotherapy—a novel therapeutic approach to overcome radioresistance and enhance anti‐tumour response in melanoma
Authors: Trappetti V.
Fazzari J.
Fernandez Palomo, Cristian
Scheidegger M.
Volarevic, Vladislav
Martin O.
Djonov, Valentin
Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue Date: 2-Jul-2021
Abstract: Melanoma is the deadliest type of skin cancer, due to its invasiveness and limited treatment efficacy. The main therapy for primary melanoma and solitary organ metastases is wide exci-sion. Adjuvant therapy, such as chemotherapy and targeted therapies are mainly used for dissemi-nated disease. Radiotherapy (RT) is a powerful treatment option used in more than 50% of cancer patients, however, conventional RT alone is unable to eradicate melanoma. Its general radiore-sistance is attributed to overexpression of repair genes in combination with cascades of biochemical repair mechanisms. A novel sophisticated technique based on synchrotron‐generated, spatially frac-tionated RT, called Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), has been shown to overcome these treatment limitations by allowing increased dose delivery. With MRT, a collimator subdivides the ho-mogeneous radiation field into an array of co‐planar, high‐dose microbeams that are tens of micro-metres wide and spaced a few hundred micrometres apart. Different preclinical models demonstrated that MRT has the potential to completely ablate tumours, or significantly improve tumour control while dramatically reducing normal tissue toxicity. Here, we discuss the role of conventional RT‐induced immunity and the potential for MRT to enhance local and systemic anti‐tumour immune responses. Comparative gene expression analysis from preclinical tumour models indicated a specific gene signature for an ‘MRT‐induced immune effect’. This focused review highlights the potential of MRT to overcome the inherent radioresistance of melanoma which could be further enhanced for future clinical use with combined treatment strategies, in particular, immunotherapy.
Type: Review
DOI: 10.3390/ijms22147755
ISSN: 16616596
SCOPUS: 85110542740
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kragujevac
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