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|Title:||Bradykinin and Galectin-3 in Survived and Deceased Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia: An Increasingly Promising Biochemical Target|
|Authors:||Nikolic Turnic, Tamara |
|Abstract:||Introduction. There are still no definite curative or preventive strategies for COVID-19 disease. It is crucial to fully comprehend the pathogenesis of COVID-19 infection so that we can develop expedient pharmacological protocols. While the impact of cytokine storm on COVID-19 severity has been one of the most tested hypotheses, the role of bradykinin and various other oxidative stress markers has been relatively under-researched. Their levels can be determined immediately after a hospital admission so they could be used as early predictors of the further development of the disease. Aim. The study aims at evaluating the possibility of using bradykinin and galectin-3 levels as early predictors that COVID-19 disease will progress into a severe case. Material and methods. The study was conducted as a prospective cross-sectional study. It included 47 consecutive adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 pneumonia. All study subjects were admitted for a hospital treatment to the tertiary Clinical Hospital Center Bezanijska kosa, Belgrade, Serbia on June 2021. The blood samples were collected at the patients' admission. The analyses of demographic, radiological, and clinical data were later conducted for both groups (the deceased patients and those who survived). In addition, we analyzed the potential relations between the outcome and the levels of bradykinin and galectin-3 measured immediately after the patients were admitted to the hospital. Results. The patients who passed away were predominantly older men with comorbidities. We recorded higher CT scores in the deceased patients and the significantly higher levels of urea, creatinine, CK, troponine, CRP, and other laboratory markers. They stayed at the ICU unit longer and required mechanical ventilation more frequently than the patients who survived. On the other hand, no differences were recorded in the time periods passing from the onset of the systems to the hospital admissions. Finally, we can highlight several independent predictors of mortality in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, including the following: (1) patients who are 50 or more years old, (2) with in-hospital stays are longer that 4 days, (3) bradykinin levels surpass 220000 pg/ml, (4) D-dimer, creatinine, and CRP are elevated, and (5) comorbidities were present (such as hypertension and diabetes). Conclusion. The present study strongly supports the bradykinin storm hypothesis. Since elevated bradykinin levels have been found in most COVID-19 cases with fatal outcomes, the future therapeutical strategies for COVID-19 have to be focused on reducing bradykinin serum concentrations.|
|Appears in Collections:||Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kragujevac|
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