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|Title:||The evaluation of antibiotic consumption at the inpatient level in Kazakhstan from 2011 to 2018|
Dragojević Simić V.
|Abstract:||© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Antimicrobial agents have a rather special position due to their importance as essential medicines for the treatment of infectious diseases. Evidence-based prescriptions are needed to optimize the use of antimicrobials in humans, as well as to decrease antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to assess the inpatient consumption of antimicrobial drugs for systemic use in the period 2011–2018 in Kazakhstan. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the inpatient use of antibacterial drugs for systemic use (group J01) for the period 2011–2018 using the anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classification)/defined daily dose (DDD) methodology recommended by the World Health Organization. Inpatient antimicrobial utilization is expressed as DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day (DID). The results of the assessment for inpatient antibiotic use (over an eight-year period) showed a decrease in the total consumption of antibiotics for systemic action in Kazakhstan (2011: 12.72 DID; 2018: 2.74 DID). Among oral formulations, levofloxacin was consumed the most, and cefazolin was consumed the most among the parenteral formulations of antimicrobials. The three drugs consumed the most included cefazolin (first-generation cephalosporin), ceftriaxone (third-generation cephalosporin), and cefuroxime (second-generation cephalosporin). The total consumption of antibacterials for systemic action in Kazakhstan decreased during the analyzed period, but there was an irrational use of certain groups of drugs.|
|Appears in Collections:||Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kragujevac|
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|10.3390-antibiotics9020057.pdf||2.07 MB||Adobe PDF|
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