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Title: Spa environments in central Serbia: Geothermal potential, radioactivity, heavy metals and PAHs
Authors: Gulan, Ljiljana
Penjišević, ivana
Stajić, Jelena
Milenković, Biljana
Zeremski, Tijana
Stevanovic, Vladica
Valjarevic, Aleksandar
Journal: Chemosphere
Issue Date: 1-Mar-2020
Abstract: © 2019 Elsevier Ltd This study aims to estimate geothermal potential, radioactivity levels, and environmental pollution of six most popular spas in Central Serbia (Ovčar, Gornja Trepča, Vrnjačka, Mataruška, Bogutovačka and Sokobanja), as well as to evaluate potential exposure and health risks for living and visiting population. Thermal possibilities of the studied spas showed medium and low geothermal potential with total thermal power of 0.025 MW. Gamma dose rates in air varied from 63 to 178 nSv h−1. Specific activities of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and 137Cs in soil were measured; annual effective doses and excess lifetime cancer risk from radionuclides were calculated. Radon concentration in thermal-mineral waters from the spas ranged between 1.5 and 60.7 Bq L−1 (the highest values were measured in Sokobanja). The annual effective dose from radon due to water ingestion was calculated. The analyzed soils had a clay loam texture. The presence of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Hg in soil was investigated. The concentrations of As, Cr, Ni, and Hg exceeded the regulatory limits in many samples. Soil samples from Mataruška spa were generally the most contaminated with heavy metals, while the lowest heavy metal concentrations were observed in Sokobanja. Health effects of exposure to heavy metals in soil were estimated by non-carcinogenic risk and carcinogenic risk assessment. Total carcinogenic risk ranged between 6 × 10−4 and 137 × 10−4 for children and between 0.1 × 10−4 and 2.2 × 10−4 for adults. The sum of 16 PAHs analyzed in soil samples varied from 92 to 854 μg kg−1.
Type: article
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125171
ISSN: 00456535
SCOPUS: 85073936556
Appears in Collections:Institute for Information Technologies, Kragujevac

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