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Title: Chemical Characterization and In Vitro Bioactivity of Apple Bark Extracts Obtained by Subcritical Water
Authors: Švarc Gajić J.
Cerdà, Víctor
Delerue-Matos, Cristina
Mašković, Pavle
Clavijo S.
Suárez R.
Cvetanović, Aleksandra
Ramalhosa, Maria João
Barroso, M. Fátima
Moreira, Manuela M.
Morais, Simone
Withouck H.
Boeykens A.
Issue Date: 2021
Abstract: Recently, the value of wood residues has received increasing attention due to the presence of pharmacologically active compounds. In the present study, apple bark was treated with subcritical water (SWE) with the aim of bioactivity determination and chemical analysis by GC–MS applying two different sample preparation protocols and by HPLC. Extracts were screened for their total antioxidant capacity by means of total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid contents (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and DPPH-radical scavenging activity (DPPH-RSA). Anti-microbial and anti-proliferative activities of the apple bark subcritical water extracts were also examined. Different lignin and cellulose degradation products were identified by GC–MS, as well as naturally present compounds. Identified compounds encompassed organic and fatty acids, alcohols, sugars, phenol, benzaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde and azulene derivatives, as well as other organic compounds. Phenolic profiles of apple bark extracts defined by HPLC–PDA analysis revealed that the main contributors were gallic acid (9.4 ± 0.5 mg/g DW) and catechin (8.3 ± 0.4 mg/g DW). The diversity of the extracts composition supports the fact that this medium is able to extract compounds of different polarities, simultaneously acting as catalyst and reactant. The characterized apple bark extracts demonstrated good antioxidant (TPC = 31.47 ± 1.86 mg GAE/g; TFC = 17.40 ± 1.89 mg EE/g; FRAP = 22.45 ± 2.22 mg AAE/g; DPPH-RSA = 22.57 ± 2.24 mg Trolox E/g DW), antimicrobial (MIC = 19.53–156.25 μg/mL) and anti-proliferative activity (IC50 = 19.88–47.44 μg/mL). The findings of this study showed that SWE can be used as an environmentally friendly and safe technique for the valorization of apple tree wood residues, applicable in food and pharmaceutical industries. Graphic Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
Type: article
DOI: 10.1007/s12649-021-01477-z
ISSN: 1877-2641
SCOPUS: 2-s2.0-85106399410
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Agronomy, Čačak

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